5G/NR - Synchronization Home : www.sharetechnote.com
I think the most steps in any wireless system (especially high end wireless system like Cellular communication system) is Synchronization. However, in terms of troubleshooting this step would be one of the trickest part. If you just take outside looking of the device or of Basestation, you would not get any clue on what got wrong in this step. Also, most of device (UE) log or Base station log, you would not see much detailed information about this step. You may only see 'Pass / Fail' print out in the log. Even when you find a specific log that print out some further details of this process, in most case those information would be printed out as a series of mysterious numbers. If you do not have specific information of the specific algorithm used for the synchronization process of the specific device, it would be almost impossible to interpret the information in the log. Usually this is the area of lower layer DSP engineer or FPGA engineer. However, it would be helpful if you have at least general understanding on how Synchronization process works and overall design concept of this process.
Following is overall sequence of the Initial Access for most of cellular system with the focus on Synchronization process. Technically, step (1), (2), (3) can all be regarded as synchronization step. But when we just say "Synchronization", it usually mean Downlink Synchronization as indicated in step (1), (2). Of course, Uplink Synchronization is very important as well, but usually the uplink process (step (3)) is regarded as part of RACH process and normall treated under "RACH Procedure" or "Initial Access" process.
In this page, I would mostly handle on 'Downlink Synchronization' and I would treat Uplink Synchronization in another page dealing with RACH process / Initial Access.
When we design the synchronization signal and procedure, you have consider a lot of things into consideration. In NR(5G), there would be even longer list of factors you would have to consider in designing this procedure. I put down some of common factors being proposed in 3GPP technical discussions (TDocs) on this illustration, but there would be never ending list of factors you may add.
The most common way to implement the Synchronization is
i) Create a predefined signal (a predefined data sequence : This signal is called Sync signal)
ii) Put the signal into a specific OFDMA symbol in a specific subframe and transmit
Since UE already have (or can derive) all the details of the predefined sync signal, it can search and detect the data from the stream of data reaching the UE. Because the sync signal is located in the predefined location in time, UE can detect the exact timing from the decoded sync signal.
Most part of the answer to this question is obvious from the definition of 'Synchronization'. Roughly we can derive following informations from the synchronization signal. Item i) or ii) is obvious... but we can design the Synchronization signal in such a way that we can derive some additional information from it. For example, in LTE (as you see in LTE Physical Cell ID page), we can derived Physical Cell ID from LTE Sync signal. In NR (5G), it is pretty sure that 3GPP will add some additional information onto the sync signal.
i) Radio Frame Boundary (the location of the first symbol in a radio frame)
ii) Subframe Boundary (the location of the first symbol in a subframe)
iii) Some additional information (e.g, Physical Cell ID, Hypercell ID, System ID etc)
The questions is "At which subframe and at which OFDM symbol(s), the Sync signal will be placed". Several different idea / possibilities are proposed as shown below.
Descriptions will posted later (Try to make your own story out of this .. or refer to R1-166653 ()
Since both Single Beam and Multibeam should be supported in 5G, there would be a little bit different strategy depending on whether it is for Single beam or Multi Beam. Within each beam management type, there can be different strategy depending on whether the network transmit the SS signal in repetitive maner or in single transmission. All of these patterns are well described in R1-1611272 as shown below.
A couple of questions that may help you to get more concrete understanding would be (Try to find answers to these questions when 3GPP specification is finalized. You may find answers to these questions even now in case of Pretrial specification)
3GPP R1-166107. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Synchronization and initial access mechanism in NR
 3GPP R1-166653. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Consideration on synchronization for NR
 3GPP R1-166910. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - LG_Discussion on DL Synchronization in NR v1.1_final
 3GPP R1-166948. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Transmission of synchronization signal on demand
 3GPP R1-166949. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Band agnostic synchronization and cell search
3GPP R1-167028. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Sync and Beam Acquisition Procedure in Multi-Beam Based Approach
3GPP R1-167672. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 -Synchronization in NR considering beam sweeping
 3GPP R1-167705. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Design on NR DL Synchronization
 3GPP R1-167707. 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #86 - Initial performance evaluation of different beamforming options for NR synchronization signals
 3GPP R1-1611272 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #87 (RAN1-NR#1) - Overview of NR initial access