I don't have any experties to explain the channel coding algorithm in detail not to mention of explanining it in plain / intuitive way. So this page will describe only on high level descriptions of NR channel coding as I learn more on this.
In LTE, Turbo Coding and Convolutional Coding are used for most of the LTE channel. However, in NR Polar coding and LDPC are used for most of channels.
Following table shows what kind of data/information is econded by what kind of channel coding algorithm in NR.
Basically Polar Coding is to replace TBCC (Tail Bit Convolution Code) and LDPC is to replace Turbo Coding.
Turbo Coding is relatively simple at Encoding phase but complex in decoding phase. This complexity gets higher as the size of code block gets larger.
LDPC is not as simple as turbo coding at Encoding phase, but much simpler in decoding phase. So good for large block size. (Ref )