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mmWave Antenna on UE

 

When I first studying on 5G Beam Management based on 3GPP, the image in my mind (whether it is correct or not) was that the beam management is mostly about Network activity, it is mostly passive in UE's perspective except the initial beam selection. My image was something like this

    i) Network informs the UE of the detailed information about all the beams it uses based on all the possible codebooks defined in 3GPP.

    ii) UE performs the measurement for each of the beam and send the report to NW.

    iii) Network explicitely direct UE to use a specific beam based on the measurement report.

In this scenario, UE just have passive roles.. that is just perform the measurement and send it to network and tune its beam as directed by Network. But in reality (at least up to now, Mar 2022) I don't think this kind of fully network guided / closed loop type of beamforming happens at the full maturity. In most case (especially for FR2 where beam management is expected to play a crucial role), Network just provides UE with some guidence of the beam selection/change with relatively long interval (like every 20ms interval or longer) and UE should play active roles to adjust its own Rx beam at every slot to maintain the best radio link to network beam (TRP).

In this note, I will try to explain how those active roles on UE side happens. Actually the algorithms and implementation is mainly up to each modem protocol stack implementation (not explicitely defined in 3GPP) and I am not supposed to mention about any specific implementation. I will just to try explain overall (generic) way of UE side beam management based on those materials available in public domain (check out the reference section).

 

 

 

Antenna Modules on the Phone

 

For mmWave, most of UE (actually all of the UE as far as I know of) has multiple antenna module on the device (The exact number of antenna modules on the device is up to UE manufacturer. As far as I have observed, the minimum number was two and the max number is 4).

Why multiple antenna ?  As you know, it is not feasible to transmit the signal in omni direction from TRP (gNB transmittion antenna). It will transmit the signal in the form of beam (i.e, radiation in a certain restricted range of angles in spherical cordinate) and the direction and angular width of the beam varies very quickly depending on situation.  In order to receive those varying beam in any condition, ideally the Rx antenna (UE antenna) should be omni directional, but implmenting omni antenna at mmWave on UE side is also not feasible. As an alternative, you may implement one big antenna array with wide range of weighting factors (codebook) that can cover very wide range. This may be possible but inefficient because user may change the angular position of UE often and even more seriously the antenna module can be blocked by user's hand or any other obstacle. If UE has only one antenna module, the connection would drop if that one antenna is blocked.  Therefore, the most widely adopted solution is to put multiple antenna module on the UE and select the best module at a specific moment (e,g, at a specific slot).

 

I think following placement of antenna module was the first generation of mmWave UE antenna (likely to be suggested by Modem manufacturer).

 

Source : Qualcomm QTM052 mmWave Antenna Module Analysis (YouTube)

 

 

For more specific information about Antenna placement and some characteristics open to public space, you may search in FCC document. As far as I observed, SamSung is most open for sharing the details in FCC document. I haven't seen any other manufacturer sharing as detailed information as SamSung. Following is one example.

 

Source : FCC ID: A3LSMG977U (SamSung) - Test Setup Photos

 

For the details of characterizations of each antenna modules and beam ID of the SamSung device shown above is described in details in this FCC document : Power Density Simulation Report - FCC ID : A3LSMG977U

 

 

 

How do the multiple antenna work ?

 

Usually each of the antenna modules on UE is an array antenna made up of multiple antenna elements (As far as I know, all the antenna module on current UE is 1D array antenna(Uniform Linear Array) and I haven't seen 2D array(Uniform Rectangular Array) as of yet).  By changing the weighting factor for each antenna elements in a module (the set of weighting factors are called Codebook), each module can form beams with various direction and width as depicted below.

At a specific moment of reception (at specific slots receiving DL signal), only one specific beam on a specific module gets active. So the big.. big... big... question is how UE can figure out the best module and best beam at each and every specific slot. This is completely upto modem algorithm and nothing to be shared in public. But you may get some general idea from various papers as explained in next section.

 

NOTE : When I say 'codebook', it meams a set of codeword (a specific weighting factor) which is stated as follows in Beam Codebook Design for 5G mmWave Terminals :

    a codeword is a set of analog phase shift values, or a set of magnitude plus phase shift values, applied to the antenna elements, in order to form an analog beam

 

 

You may get some intuitive understanding on this mechanism acting in live can be seen in the YouTube video as linked below. You would get much better understanding just by watching this single video than reading my notes 10 times (a picture is worth of a thousand words :)

 

Source : 5G Mobile mmWave OTA Test Network (YouTube)

 

 

Optional Reading : This is direct quote from this paper : Beam Codebook Design for 5G mmWave Terminals. You may skip this if you are not specifically interested in this area or you think this is too much reading. This part is not essential to get the idea of this note. this is more for my person reading for future reference.

  • Antenna for mmWave bands is intrinsically directional. For example, the patch antenna usually has a high front-toback ratio and consequently can cover at most half-sphere. The directional element radiation pattern will also result in the drift of the peak gain direction from the intended one if the beamforming vector is merely designed based on the steering vector. In addition, when placed inside mobile handsets, the radiation gain of the mmWave antenna is less than the free-space case due to blockage loss and the radiation pattern shape is also changed.
  • Antenna placement and antenna spacing may not be regular. For example, the planar array may not have the halfwavelength spacing between adjacent elements due to formfactor constraints. Another reason is related to the multifrequency bands that the mmWave terminal has to support.
  • The mmWave bands for 5G deployment in US will include 24 GHz, 28 GHz and 39 GHz, etc1. The same antenna arrays, however, are likely to be used at all these carrier frequency bands. Therefore, a half-wavelength spacing at a frequency band will result in less than (or more than) half-wavelength spacing at other lower (or higher) frequency bands.
  • A 5G mmWave capable UE is typically equipped with multiple antenna arrays. For example, there are at most four mmWave modules mounted on the top, bottom, left and right edges of the phone, respectively. Multiple mmWave antenna arrays are necessary to enable a good spherical coverage over the whole sphere and to circumvent human body blocking. In a benchmark codebook design, the beam codewords are designed independently for each array, which is a suboptimal solution since the interaction and coordination between the arrays are ignored.

 

 

 

What do we have to know of the Antenna Characteristics ?

 

According to Beam Codebook Design for 5G mmWave Terminals, the factors affecting the codebook design can be listed as follows :

    1) Antenna element type and gain (e.g. isotropic, dipole, microstrip patch);

    2) Array layout (e.g. linear, rectangular, circular, cylinder) and placement if there are multiple arrays;

    3) Requirements of codebook (e.g. codebook size, required coverage regions, phase shifter resolution);

    4) Consideration about UE housing (e.g., display screen, battery);

    5) The coordination among different arrays mounted on the same terminal.

If you take all of these into consideration, you would have almost infinite permutations of factors which is impossible to implement. Even with much restricted set of factors assuming linear microstrip patch with 4 antenna elements within a module (L = 4), 2 bit resolution of phase shifter (b = 2) and codebook size = 4 (K=4), the exhastive search space for finding optimal codebook is 2^(b L K) = 2^(2*4*4) = 2^32 which is not feasible to implement. So modem manufacturer needs to come out with some special procedure to find much smaller set of permutations which are closer to optimal solution.

 

Once you identify codebook, you may visualize the performance of each codeword as shown below to communicate about the characteristics of each beam created by each codeword. Only one of the beam is active at a specific Tx and Rx timing (usually in a slot). You may notice that each of the beam is pretty directional which covers only a small area in spherical coordinates and you need to consider the coverage of each beam when you are testing the UE performance in mmWave.

 

Source : Beam Codebook Design for 5G mmWave Terminals

 

Eventually what you need to get is heat map (e.g, heat map for Tx power, Rx power, Sensitivity etc) for every codebook elements, antenna module and the composite of all the codebook elements for varous scenario.

 

Source : First 5G mmWave Antenna Module for Smartphones

 

 

 

Testing in the Lab

 

Practically I think it is almost impossible to duplicate in the lab live-network environment for beam management, but still you may do  a lot of testing for mmWave in the lab. I don't think you can easily perform such a test in the lab for fast sweeping beam or differetiation between Narrow beam and Widebeam and differentiation between with QCL and without QCL etc in the lab environment, but you can still perform many kinds of static / semi-static beam and just chaning power and direction of the beam among only a few different directions.

 

First thing you need to do for lab testing is to find the proper chamber for the test. There are roughly three types of chambers availble in the market. Whitebox/line of sight Chamber, CATR Chamber and MPAC chamber. Ideally it would be the best to use MPAC to create an environment and beam variation close to live network, but there would be many technicall challenges to properly operate the chamber and cost issues as well. By the time you may need MPAC chamber, most people would take the device out in the field and do test in live. I think most common type of chamber being used in the lab is whitebox type of chamber as illustrated below.

 

 

If your situation allows, you may have more versatile chamber as shown below and perform more diverse and realistic beam management test.

 

Source : Edited from Introducing Keysight’s F9660A 3D MPAC OTA Chamber

 

Once you got a chamber, you may perform various steps of test as listed below. Each of the test in the list would take a lot of time and effort until you reach a certain maturity level.

    1) Basic connection establishment : with very basic RRC configuration (no ptrs, no trs, no csi report) and with low throughput. Just check how reliably a UE attaches NR cell.  At this step, you may need to do a lot of trial and errors with angular position of UE with respect to gNB horn antenna. If you have the information about exact the position of each antenna module on UE and heat map, it will greatly help.

    2) Max throughput Test with the basic RRC configuration (no ptrs, no trs, no csi report)

    3) Max throughput test with PTRS : Does PTRS help to achieve and maintain high throughput ?

    4) Connection establishment test with simple CSI (single set of trs) : Does UE accept the configuration and does it help for stable connection ?

    5) Connection establishement test with single set of TRS and CSI report with multi port (e.g, p2, p4) : Does UE accept the configuration and does it help for stable connection ?

    7) Connection establishment test with TRS, CSI Report and QCL between SSB and CSI beam : : Does UE accept the configuration and does it help for stable connection ?

    8) Max throughput test with configuration 7) : Does it help to achieve and maintain high throughput ?

    9) Changing the angular position of UE and check the throughput performance or heatmap variation. (You can change the UE's angular position in positioner in the chamber)

    10) Perform more complicated Beam Management test like RRM test (You would need more versatile chamber like MPAC chamber for this type of test)

 

 

 

Snapshot of RRM Test

 

For a few years at early phase of 5G, Beam Related testing was mostly planned and performed by research and creativity of modem manufacturer, UE manufacturer and network infra vendor because there was no common specification for the test. In those period, everybody have done a little bit different set of tests. So passing the tests in one party (modem vendor or UE vendor or live network) does not guarantee working in other party. In those days, live network configuration played the role of ultimate reference, but in many cases it is hard to duplicate the live network configuration with lab test equipment and even those live network configuration varies widely depending on vendors and network operators.

Now (as of Mar 2022) I see 3GPP RRM Test Specification (38.533) is pretty mature. Even though it seems much simpler than live network situation, at least now we have some common RRC configuration and Beam Setup that is expected to pass with every UE.

What I am trying to do in this section is to put some key parameters and procedures based on FR2 RRM test. I am not trying to duplicate RRM specification as it is. I will just try to put some big picture of those RRM test with the reference to the original document so that you can find the corresponding specification more easily.

 

 

SSB for FR2 CSC 120

 

This is based on 38.533-Table A.3.2-1: SSB allocation for FR2

SSB Parameters

Values

Pattern

SSB1 FR2

SSB3 FR2

SSB5 FR2

SSB7 FR2

Channel BW (Mhz)

100

100

100

100

SSB Periodicity (ms)

20

20

20

20

SSB Bitmap

11000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

10000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00110000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

01000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

00000000 00000000

SSB Position in Frequency Domain

Any allowed SGSN

Any allowed SGSN

Any allowed SGSN

Any allowed SGSN

 

 

RACH Configuration for FR2

 

Field

Value

Comment

PRACH Configuration

PRACH 1

FR2

PRACH 2

FR2

PRACH 3

FR2

PRACH 4

FR2

 

prach-ConfigurationIndex

190

190

190

190

Preamble Format C2. 10ms Periodicity

msg1-SubcarrierSpacing

Same as UL carrier SCS

Same as UL carrier SCS

Same as UL carrier SCS

Same as UL carrier SCS

 

totalNumberOfRA-Preambles

48

48

48

48

Total number of preambles used for contention based and contention free random access

numberOfRA-PreamblesGroupA

48

48

48

48

No Group B

prach-RootSequenceIndex

0

0

0

0

Logic Sequence index = 0 resulting in root sequence = 1

ssb-perRACH-OccasionAndCB-PreamblePerSSB

oneForth, n48

N/A

N/A

N/A

OneFourth: 1 SSB associated with 4RO

n48: 48 CB preamble per SSB

ssb-perRACH-Occasion

N/A

oneFourth

oneFourth

oneFourth

OneFourth: 1 SSB associated with 4RO

msg1-FDM

one

one

one

one

One PRACH transmission occasions FDMed in one time instance

rsrp-ThreshholdSSB

RSRP_51

RSRP_51

N/A

RSRP_51

The actual value of the threshold is -105dBm.

rsrp-ThreshholdCSI-RS

N/A

N/A

RSRP_51

N/A

ra-ContentionResolutionTimer

sf48

N/A

N/A

N/A

48 sub-frames

powerRampingStep

dB2

dB2

dB2

dB2

 

preambleRecievedTarget Power

dBm-120

dBm-120

dBm-120

dBm-120

 

preambleTransMax

n6

n6

n6

n200

Max number of RA preamble transmission performed before declaring a failure

ra-ResponseWindow

sf10

sf10

sf10

sf40

 

zeroCorrelationZoneConfig

11

11

11

11

N-CS configuration Ncs = 23

Backoff Parameter Index

2

2

2

2

20ms

ssb-ResourceList

-

present

N/A

N/A

Associated with SSB index 0

   ra-PreambleIndex

-

50

N/A

N/A

Associated with SSB index 0

csirs-ResourceList

N/A

present

present

present

Associated with CSI-RS Configured

   ra-PreambleIndex

N/A

50

50

50

Associated with CSI-RS Configured

ra-OccasionList

-

-

1

1

RA occasions allowed corresponding to CSI-RS

ra-ssb-OccasionMaskIndex

 

1

N/A

N/A

PRACH occasion index 1 is allowe

 

 

RACH-ConfigCommon ::= SEQUENCE {

    rach-ConfigGeneric                      RACH-ConfigGeneric,

    totalNumberOfRA-Preambles          INTEGER (1..63) OPTIONAL, -- Need S

    ssb-perRACH-OccasionAndCB-PreamblesPerSSB CHOICE {

        oneEighth               ENUMERATED {n4,n8,n12,n16,n20,n24,n28,n32,n36,n40,n44,n48,n52,n56,n60,n64},

        oneFourth               ENUMERATED {n4,n8,n12,n16,n20,n24,n28,n32,n36,n40,n44,n48,n52,n56,n60,n64},

        oneHalf                  ENUMERATED {n4,n8,n12,n16,n20,n24,n28,n32,n36,n40,n44,n48,n52,n56,n60,n64},

        one                       ENUMERATED {n4,n8,n12,n16,n20,n24,n28,n32,n36,n40,n44,n48,n52,n56,n60,n64},

        two                       ENUMERATED {n4,n8,n12,n16,n20,n24,n28,n32},

        four                      INTEGER (1..16),

        eight                     INTEGER (1..8),

        sixteen                  INTEGER (1..4)

    } OPTIONAL, -- Need M

    groupBconfigured SEQUENCE {

        ra-Msg3SizeGroupA          ENUMERATED {b56, b144, b208, b256, b282, b480, b640,

                                                               b800, b1000, b72, spare6, spare5,spare4, spare3, spare2, spare1},

        messagePowerOffsetGroupB        ENUMERATED { minusinfinity, dB0, dB5, dB8, dB10, dB12, dB15, dB18},

        numberOfRA-PreamblesGroupA     INTEGER (1..64)

    } OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    ra-ContentionResolutionTimer          ENUMERATED { sf8, sf16, sf24, sf32, sf40, sf48, sf56, sf64},

    rsrp-ThresholdSSB                         RSRP-Range OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    rsrp-ThresholdSSB-SUL                  RSRP-Range OPTIONAL, -- Cond SUL

    prach-RootSequenceIndex CHOICE {

        l839             INTEGER (0..837),

        l139             INTEGER (0..137)

    },

    msg1-SubcarrierSpacing                SubcarrierSpacing OPTIONAL, -- Cond L139

    restrictedSetConfig                      ENUMERATED {unrestrictedSet, restrictedSetTypeA, restrictedSetTypeB},

    msg3-transformPrecoder               ENUMERATED {enabled} OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    ...,

    [[

    ra-PrioritizationForAccessIdentity-r16 SEQUENCE {

        ra-Prioritization-r16                  RA-Prioritization,

        ra-PrioritizationForAI-r16           BIT STRING (SIZE (2))

    } OPTIONAL, -- Cond InitialBWP-Only

    prach-RootSequenceIndex-r16 CHOICE {

        l571                                      INTEGER (0..569),

        l1151                                    INTEGER (0..1149)

    } OPTIONAL -- Need R

    ]]

}

 

 

RACH-ConfigDedicated ::= SEQUENCE {

    cfra                                         CFRA OPTIONAL, -- Need S

    ra-Prioritization                          RA-Prioritization OPTIONAL, -- Need N

    ...,

    [[

    ra-PrioritizationTwoStep-r16         RA-Prioritization OPTIONAL, -- Need N

    cfra-TwoStep-r16                      CFRA-TwoStep-r16 OPTIONAL -- Need S

    ]]

}

 

CFRA ::= SEQUENCE {

    occasions SEQUENCE {

        rach-ConfigGeneric                 RACH-ConfigGeneric,

        ssb-perRACH-Occasion            ENUMERATED {oneEighth, oneFourth, oneHalf, one, two, four, eight, sixteen}

             OPTIONAL -- Cond Mandatory

             OPTIONAL, -- Need S

    }

    resources CHOICE {

        ssb SEQUENCE {

            ssb-ResourceList                SEQUENCE (SIZE(1..maxRA-SSB-Resources)) OF CFRA-SSB-Resource,

            ra-ssb-OccasionMaskIndex   INTEGER (0..15)

        },

        csirs SEQUENCE {

            csirs-ResourceList               SEQUENCE (SIZE(1..maxRA-CSIRS-Resources)) OF CFRA-CSIRS-Resource,

            rsrp-ThresholdCSI-RS          RSRP-Range

        }

    },

    ...,

    [[

    totalNumberOfRA-Preambles          INTEGER (1..63) OPTIONAL -- Cond Occasions

    ]]

}

 

CFRA-TwoStep-r16 ::= SEQUENCE {

    occasionsTwoStepRA-r16 SEQUENCE {

        rach-ConfigGenericTwoStepRA-r16           RACH-ConfigGenericTwoStepRA-r16,

        ssb-PerRACH-OccasionTwoStepRA-r16      ENUMERATED {oneEighth, oneFourth, oneHalf, one, two, four,

                                                                                     eight, sixteen}

    } OPTIONAL, -- Need S

    msgA-CFRA-PUSCH-r16                              MsgA-PUSCH-Resource-r16,

    msgA-TransMax-r16                                  ENUMERATED {n1, n2, n4, n6, n8, n10, n20, n50, n100, n200}

                                                                                     OPTIONAL, -- Need S

    resourcesTwoStep-r16 SEQUENCE {

        ssb-ResourceList                        SEQUENCE (SIZE(1..maxRA-SSB-Resources)) OF CFRA-SSB-Resource,

        ra-ssb-OccasionMaskIndex           INTEGER (0..15)

    },

    ...

}

 

CFRA-SSB-Resource ::= SEQUENCE {

    ssb                            SSB-Index,

    ra-PreambleIndex         INTEGER (0..63),

    ...,

    [[

    msgA-PUSCH-Resource-Index-r16                  INTEGER (0..3071) OPTIONAL -- Cond 2StepCFRA

    ]]

}

 

CFRA-CSIRS-Resource ::= SEQUENCE {

    csi-RS                    CSI-RS-Index,

    ra-OccasionList        SEQUENCE (SIZE(1..maxRA-OccasionsPerCSIRS)) OF INTEGER (0..maxRA-Occasions-1),

    ra-PreambleIndex      INTEGER (0..63),

}

 

RACH-ConfigGeneric ::= SEQUENCE {

    prach-ConfigurationIndex                            INTEGER (0..255),

    msg1-FDM                                                ENUMERATED {one, two, four, eight},

    msg1-FrequencyStart                                 INTEGER (0..maxNrofPhysicalResourceBlocks-1),

    zeroCorrelationZoneConfig                           INTEGER(0..15),

    preambleReceivedTargetPower                     INTEGER (-202..-60),

    preambleTransMax                                     ENUMERATED {n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n10, n20, n50, n100, n200},

    powerRampingStep                                     ENUMERATED {dB0, dB2, dB4, dB6},

    ra-ResponseWindow                                   ENUMERATED {sl1, sl2, sl4, sl8, sl10, sl20, sl40, sl80},

    ...,

    [[

    prach-ConfigurationPeriodScaling-IAB-r16           ENUMERATED {scf1,scf2,scf4,scf8,scf16,scf32,scf64}

                                                                                         OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    prach-ConfigurationFrameOffset-IAB-r16 INTEGER (0..63) OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    prach-ConfigurationSOffset-IAB-r16 INTEGER (0..39) OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    ra-ResponseWindow-v1610 ENUMERATED { sl60, sl160} OPTIONAL, -- Need R

    prach-ConfigurationIndex-v1610 INTEGER (256..262) OPTIONAL -- Need R

    ]]

}

 

 

CSI-RS Configuration for FR2

 

< 38.533 v16,4-Table A.1.4.2-3: CSI-RS Reference Measurement Channels for SCS = 120 kHz for TDD >

 

CSI-RS 3.1 TDD

CSI-RS 3.2 TDD

CSI-RS 3.3 TDD

CSI-RS 3.4 TDD

Resource Type

periodic

periodic

aperiodic

aperiodic

Resource Set Config

nzp-CSI-ResourceSetId 0 0 0 0
repetition N/A N/A off on
aperiodicTriggeringOffset N/A N/A N/A 6
trs-Info N/A N/A N/A N/A

Resource Config

nzp-CSI-RS-ResourceId 0 for resource #0 10 for resource #0 20 for resource #0 30 for Resource #0
31 for Resource #1
32 for Resource #2
33 for Resource #3
11 for resource #1 21 for resource #1 34 for Resource #4
35 for Resource #5
36 for Resource #6
37 for Resource #7
powerControlOffset 0 0 0 0
powerControlOffsetSS db0 db0 db0 db0
scramblingID 0 0 0 0
Period (slots) slot40 slot80 N/A N/A
Offset 8 8 N/A N/A
qcl-InfoPeriodicCSI-RS TCI.State.0 TCI.State.0 N/A N/A
TCI.State.1
frequencyDomainAllocation 000001 000001 000001 000001
Ports 2 1 1 1
OFDMSymbolInTimeDomain 5 for resource #0 6 for resource #0 6 for resource #0 0 for resource #0
1 for resource #1
2 for resource #2
3 for resource #3
10 for resource #1 10 for resource #1 4 for resource #4
5 for resource #5
6 for resource #6
7 for resource #7
cdm-Type FD-CDM2 noCDM noCDM noCDM
density 1 3 3 3
startingRB 0 0 0 0
nrofRBs 276 276 276 276

 

 

CSI-RS Configuration for tracking for FR2

 

Parameter

Unit

Value

 

Reference Channel

 

TRS.2.1 TDD

TRS.2.2 TDD

Bandwidth

 

BW of Active BWP BW of Activie BWP
SCS

kHz

120 120
First subcarrier index in the PRB used for CSI-RS

 

k0=0 for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4 k0=0 for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4
First OFDM symbol in the slot used for CSI-RS

 

l0=1 for CSI-RS resource 1 and 3

l0=5 for CSI-RS resource 2 and 4

l0=2 for CSI-RS resource 1 and 3

l0=6 for CSI-RS resource 2 and 4

Number of CSI-RS ports (X)

 

1 for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4 1 for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4
CDM Type

 

'No CDM' for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4 'No CDM' for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4
Density

 

3 for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4 3 for CSI-RS resource 1,2,3,4
CSI-RS periodicity

slots

80 for CSI-RS resources 1,2,3,4 80 for CSI-RS resources 1,2,3,4
CSI-RS offset

slots

40 for CSI-RS resources 1 and 2

41 for CSI-RS resources 3 and 4

40 for CSI-RS resources 1 and 2

41 for CSI-RS resources 3 and 4

EPRE ratio to SSS

dB

-3 -3
TCI state

 

TCI.State.0 TCI.State.1

 

 

 

Reference : Paper / White Paper /Journels

 

 

 

Reference :  YouTube / Webinar