4G/LTE  Basic Procedures 

LTE PHY DSP(Digital Signal Processing)  Downlink RX
This note is based on my recent trial to decode and analyze LTE PHY signal. This is mainly to refresh my memory about the analysis process and method, but I hope it will be of help others as well. It is not the program that process the signal real time. It was a script that I wrote in Python that process the baseband I/Q data captured from Amarisoft eNB.
NOTE : The baseband signal data (I/Q) data is captured with following condition.
Followings are the list of procedure that I went through.
The first step to decode LTE PHY signal is to detect PSS and extract additional helper information. Personally, I think this would the most important step for LTE PHY signal processing because without this process you may not be able to decode any other signal. This process involves multiple steps and each of those step can be a topic for separate note. For the details of nature of PSS itself and detailed algorithm to detect PSS, check out this note. In this note, I would just give you a big picture about result of PSS detection.
Following is a series of plots from my script with the detection of PSS.
[D] represents the absolute values of I/Q data. This is the plot of raw (unprocessed) data. The only process part on the plot is the part shown in orange color. It is the part on which the detected PSS is overlaid. [A] is also a plot of nonprocessed data like [D]. The difference between [A] and [D] is difference between Time domain representation([D]) and Frequency Domain representation([A]) [B] is represent the detected signal (I/Q data) for PSS. The blue dots indicates the detected PSS as it is. Orange dots indicates the detected PSS projected onto the circle of radius 1. Since the blue dots does not give obvious visual correlation with the ideal PSS signal (a Zadoff sequence), I wanted to project it onto the circle like Zadoff sequence. [C] is the ideal data that corresponds to the detected PSS data. It is the sequence generated by the script based on 3GPP spec and N_ID_2 (PSS sequence number) found during the PSS detection process. [0]~[13] are the frequency domain plot for each OFDM symbol within the subframe where the PSS was found. Once PSS is found, we can figure out exact subframe and slot boundary of the subframe because PSS is always located in the same place (i.e, symbol 6 (7th OFDM symbol) in the subframe). With this fact, we can slice out each of OFDM data with exact start and end point. I cut out each OFDM symbols from the I/Q data and plot them in Frequency domain in dB scale.
One of the important information we can get from PSS detection is frequency error (frequency offset) which can be used to adjust (correct) frequency error of other signals (e.g, correcting frequency error of SSS). Frequency offset can be calculated / estimated as follows)
def frequency_offset_estimation(received_pss, expected_pss): phase_difference = np.angle(np.dot(received_pss, np.conj(expected_pss))) frequency_offset = phase_difference / (2 * np.pi * 62 / SampleRate) return frequency_offset
The details on each line of the code is as follows :
received_pss : an array of I/Q of the detected PSS in the form of complex number expected_pss : an array of I/Q of the PSS generated by 3GPP algorithm def frequency_offset_estimation(received_pss, expected_pss): # Calculate the phase difference between the received PSS and expected PSS # This is achieved by first taking the dot product of the received PSS and the conjugate of the expected PSS. # Then, the angle (or phase) of this product is taken. phase_difference = np.angle(np.dot(received_pss, np.conj(expected_pss)))
# Convert the phase difference into a frequency offset. # The frequency offset is calculated by dividing the phase difference by the product of: # 2 * pi (to convert from radians to cycles) # The number of subcarriers comprising PSS (which is 62 for LTE) # dividing by the sample rate to get the offset in Hz frequency_offset = phase_difference / (2 * np.pi * 62 / SampleRate)
# Return the estimated frequency offset return frequency_offset
NOTE : how phase_difference / (2 * np.pi * 62 / sample_rate) can indicate the frequency offset ? Phase and frequency are directly related: the change in phase over time is frequency. In mathematical form, it can be represented as dφ / dt = frequency. In the frequency offset estimation function, the phase difference is divided by the time duration of the symbol (which is the number of subcarriers divided by the sample rate), giving us the rate of change of phase, or frequency offset. In other words, the equation calculates the average change in phase per sample, which is then converted to Hz to represent the frequency offset. This frequency offset represents the difference in frequency between the received PSS and the expected PSS. This difference arises due to the Doppler effect or inaccuracies in the transmitter or receiver oscillators, among other reasons.
Once you get the proper frequency offset, you can compensate (correct) frequency error of other signals as follows.
signal : an array of I/Q data in the form of complex numbers. frequency_offset : frequency offset in Hz sample_rate : sample rate in samples / sec def correct_frequency_offset(signal, frequency_offset, sample_rate):
signal = np.array(signal, dtype=np.complex128) time = len(signal) / sample_rate correction = np.exp(1j * 2 * np.pi * frequency_offset * time) corrected_signal = signal * correction
def correct_frequency_offset(signal, frequency_offset, sample_rate):
# Convert the input signal into a NumPy array of complex128 data type. # This ensures the signal can be processed with complex arithmetic operations required for frequency correction. signal = np.array(signal, dtype=np.complex128)
# Generate the time vector for the signal. # Instead of creating a time array that corresponds to each sample point, the code calculates the # total time duration of the signal by dividing its length by the sample rate. time = len(signal) / sample_rate
# Calculate the complex exponential correction term. # This term is used to shift the signal's frequency content. # The negative sign in '1j' ensures that we're shifting the frequency in the opposite direction # of the detected offset, thereby correcting it. # Multiplying by '2 * np.pi' converts the frequency offset to radians. correction = np.exp(1j * 2 * np.pi * frequency_offset * time)
# Apply the correction to the original signal by elementwise multiplication. # This shifts the frequency content of the signal, thereby correcting the frequency offset. corrected_signal = signal * correction
return corrected_signal
Once you detected PSS and SSS, you are almost ready to reconstruct the resource grid (i.e, OFDM symbol vs Subcarrier). But before you trying to reconstruct the resource grid there is one more step to do. The time domain I/Q data carries a certain length of Cyclic Prefix (CP) data. You need to remove this part first before you reconstruct the resource grid. The number of I/Q samples for CP varies depending on the LTE channel bandwidth as explained in this note.
Once you have accuarate detection of timing and frequency boundary and removed CP properly, you can construct a LTE resource grid as follows. Once you have this kind of accurate resource grid, the retrieving and generating Physical layer data is something like reading and writing numbers in an Excel spreadsheet.
There is still one more step to do after you reconstructed the ResourceGrid after CP removal. It is the process of an subcarrier at the center of the resource grid.
Once you able to construct an accurate resource grid as shown above, the first thing you need to do is to detect SSS(Secondary Synchronized Signal). This process is done as in the following step : i) Retrieve I/Q data from the resource elements for SSS from the Resource Grid ii) Compensate the retrieved SSS I/Q with frequency offset obtained by PSS detection procedure. iii) Generate all the possible SSS sequence that belong to the category for N_ID_2 (PSS sequence number) iv) Compare (correlate) each and every SSS sequence from step iii) with the SSS IQ data from step ii) and find the best pair. The SSS sequence index (N_ID_1) that gives the best correlation is the detected SSS. NOTE : The procedure for step iii) and iv) is explained in detail in this note.
Some highlights of SSS detection procedure are plotted below. (A) is the original IQ data retrieved from the resource grid(this corresponds to step i) mentioned above). (B) is the SSS data compensated by frequency offset (this corresponds to step ii) mentioned above). (C) is just one example of the generated SSS (this corresponds to step iii) mentioned above)
Now you have detected PSS and SSS. With the PSS sequence index (N_ID_2) and SSS sequence index (N_ID_1), you can calculated Physical cell ID (PCI) as explained in this note.
One of the most important thing in decoding the received signal would be to estimate channel characteristics and correctly equalize the received signal using the estimated channel characteristics. In LTE, we use cell specific reference signal (CRS) to estimate the channel characteristics (channel coefficient). To do this, we need to have the received CRS and the ideal/expected CRS. The first step required for retrieving the received CRS and expected CRS is PCI which is already obtained in previous step.
Once you have the accurate PCI, the process of estimating channel coefficient goes as follows (NOTE : this is for SISO case for simplicity). i) using the PCI, calculate the position of CRS. You can do this based on 3GPP specification explained in this note. ii) then retrieve the I/Q data(complex number) from the CRS position in the resource grid (let's store all these retrieved data to a variable crs_rx). iii) Now calculate the expected CRS for the specific PCI(let's store all these calculated data to a variable crs_ex). You can generate the expected CRS based on 3GPP specification explained in this note. iv) Once you have the received crs (crs_rx) and the expected crs (crs_ex), you can estimate the channel coefficient just takding "crs_rx divided by crs_ex". (NOTE : this is a simplified way assuming that it is SISO and noise level is very low.) For futher study on this process, check out this note and this slide. Following is an plots showing the result of some important steps described above.
Now you got the channel coefficients for every resource elements where CRS is located. For the proper equalization for every resource elements in the resource grid, we need to figure out the channel coefficient for all other resource elements where there is no CRS. A common way to get the channel coefficient for every resource elements is interpolate the CRS channel coefficient in frequency and time domain and construct a resource grid filled out with the estimated (interpolated) channel coefficient. The plot for the channel coefficient resource grid (H resource grid) would be something like this.
The heatmap shown above may look fancy but would not give you much concrete meaning. Proabably plotting constellation for each OFDM symbol would give you more meaning / intuition of the channel as shown below.
Just for a little bit different aspect (view point) of the channel coefficient for each resource elements, I plotted amplutude and phase plot for the H resource grid as follows. The smallest index on horizontal axis corresponds to the subcarrier at the lowest frequency.
Now let me show you how I got the full channel coefficient grid as shown above in step by step.
Step 1 : Populate H values into an empty resource grid
The first I did was to create an empty resource grid with same size as the data resource grid and the populate the H values for CRS at the proper CRS RE(Resource Element)s as shown below. You see that only CRS location has certain values (yellow / nonblack) color and all other REs are empty (black)
Step 2 : Frequency Domain Interpolation
Now fill in the gaps only in frequency domain. You can do this by interpolating the values (complex value) along frequency domain. You may apply various ways of interpolation, but I did it just by moving average. The result of the frequency domain interpolation looks as follows.
Step 3 : Time Domain Interpolation
Now let's try to fill in the empty RE in time domain. Theoretically you can may use the same method as in frequency domain (moving average) or python package for the interpolation. But none of them work very good mainly because the number of points in time domain is too small. So I created my own interpolation function that can do the interpolation between only two end points. (NOTE : This is just for my own case, you may use different method of your own if you have any). Here is broken down procedure of what I did i) fill in symbol 1,2,3 by interpolating symbol 0 and 4 as end points ii) fill in symbol 5,6 by interpolating symbol 4 and 7 as end points iii) fill in symbol 8,9,10 by interpolating symbol 7 and 11 as end points iv) fill in symbol 12, 13 by extrapolating symbol 9,10,11 (You may do this by interpolating the symbol 11 and symbol 0 of next subframe, but I did the extrapolation because I processed only one subframe with no next subframe). Final result after all thse procedure, I get the resource grind as shown below.
With the resource grid filled with channel coefficient for every resource element, now we are ready with equalizing every symbols (every resource elements) and recovering constellation.
The constellation before correction (i.e, before Equalization), it looks as below.
Now let's compensate (equalize) the constellation with the channel coefficient. With the equalization, we can get the nicely aligned constellation as follows. The basic idea behind the equalization can be represented by a simple math as follows : Corrected symbol (equalized symbol) = received symbol / channel coefficient
Decoding MIMO is much more complicated than SISO decoding in various aspect and there may be diverse variations of implementation. The overall procedure of my implementation is as follows. i) Get the IQ data for 2 RX antenna (lets call them as iq_rx_0 and iq_rx_1 respectively) ii) Detect PSS (detecting subframe boundary), Estimate Frequency Error and detect SSS for iq_rx_0 as I did for SISO iii) Construct the Resource Grid for iq_rx_0 (let's call this as grid_rx_0) iv) Construct the Resource Grid for iq_rx_1 with the same subframe boundary obtained from iq_rx_0 (let's call this as grid_rx_1) v) Construct the H grid for 2x2 MIMO. In this case, I need to construct 4 H grid indicating channel coefficient for each path between 2 TX antenna and 2 RX antenna (let call them as h11, h21, h12, h22 respectively) vi) perform time domain and frequency domain interpolation for h11,h21,h12,h22 vii) construct 2x2 H matrix for each resource elements from h11, h21, h12, h22 resource grid. viii) Equalize grid_rx_0 and grid_rx_1 using the 2x2 H matrix ix) Undo Precoding (I used 2x2 TM3 IQ signal. so I applied TM3 2x2 Precoding matrix for this step) x) Undo Large CDD (I used 2x2 TM3 IQ signal. so I need to undo large CDD)
Resource Grid Construction  Antenna 0
The first step is to construct the resource grid for the signal captured by RX antenna 0 (iq_rx_0). This process is exactly same as I did for SISO. Check out these for the details : PSS detection, Frequency Offset Estimation, CP (Cyclic Prefix) Removal, Resource Grid Reconstruction and the result resource grid is as follows.
Resource Grid Construction  Antenna 1
Now I have to construct the resource grid for the signal captured by RX antenna 1 (iq_rx_1), but I have to think of something at this point. As explained in SISO processing, there are a few steps to be done before the construction of the resource grid. The most important thing is to find 'start of a subframe (i.e, subframe boundary)' which is the sample position of the start of the subframe within the iq data(iq_rx_1). I can think of the two cases of finding the start of a subframe for iq_rx_1 as described below. Case 1 : detecting the subframe boundary by performing PSS detection for iq_rx_1 Case 2 : Using the subframe boundary detected from iq_rx_0 You may use any of the two cases and other case if you have any better way. I used the case 2. If I use the case 1, the subframe boundary detected from iq_rx_1 and iq_rx_0 may not be the same. If there is even differences even by only one sample point, I may get completely wrong pair of data from the two RX antenna.
The resule of the construction of resource grid for iq_rx_1 based on Case 2 is shown below.
Now I have to construct the channel matrix for this 2x2 MIMO case from the two resource grid that I obtained in previous step. In case of SISO, obtaining channel coefficient is relatively simple as shown here and here because the channel coefficient for each resource element is a scalar (complex valued scalar). However, for 2x2 MIMO we need to get an 2x2 matrix for channel coefficient for each resource element.
The result of H resource grid at the position of CRS looks as bellow :
NOTE : In this specific example, the I/Q data that I captured are from the conductive connection (i.e, TX antenna 0 is connected to RX antenna 0 and TX antenna 1 is connected to RX antenna 1 via RF cable. So theoretically h21 and h12 coefficient should be zero, but there can still be a small leakage, hence you see small values even for h21 and h12. However, the magnitude of h21 and h12 is much smaller (darker color in the plot) than h11, h22.
Then I did the interpolation in frequency domain and time domain for h11,h12,h21,h22 and result are shown below. (The procedure for the implementation is same as explained in H grid construction for SISO processing.
Following is just another way of representing the interpolated H grid obtained above. I plotted each h coefficient at every resource elements for each ofdm symbol in the form of constellation. Here you would notice obviously the magnitude differences between h11,h22 and h21, h22.
What I am going to do now is to equalize the received data with channel matrix obtained in previous step. The fundamental idea is same as done for SISO . The difference is that the channel coefficient for this case is 2x2 complex numbered matrix whereas it is complex numbered scalar for SISO.
NOTE : There are various methods of utilizing H matrix for equalization as shown in these notes , in this specfic example I am going to use direct inversion for simplicity.
Before performing Equalization, let me plot the received I/Q constellation for each OFDM symbol in constellation as shown below.
Then Equalize the received signal with H matrix and I got the constellation as shown below. NOTE : The signal (PDSCH) that I captured for this example is QAM in LTE TM3 (Transmission Mode 3), but the constellation shown here does not look like QAM. Why ? This will be explained in next section.
In LTE, PDSCH gets precoded in various way depending on the type of TM (Transmission Mode) being used (If you are not familiar with TM, check out this note). The I/Q data used for this specific example is TM3 2x2 MIMO. TM3 in LTE is done by two steps : first applied with precoding matrix W and then applied with Large CDD. This whole process is expressed in math form at the middle row shown below. Therefore, in decoding process all of this processes should be 'Undone'. In encoding process(transmission process), U matrix is applied first, then D matrix and then W matrix. So in decoding process, this should be done in reverse order (i.e, undo W first, the D and then U). The mathematical meaning of 'Undo' is just to multiply the data with inverse of each matrix.
As explained above, in decoding process the first step is to undo precoding part, i.e, multiply the data with the inverse of W matrix. TM3 2x2 case, the codebook 0 is used. According to the codebook shown above, 2x2 codebook 0 is identify matrix normalized by sqrt(2). So the result of undoing W matrix is same as 'not doing anything' as shown below. You wouldn't see any difference from what you got in previous step.
Next step of undoing 'Precoding' for TM3 is to undo 'Large CDD'. The math process of Large CDD is illustrated below. So undoing Large CDD is to undo D matrix and then U matrix.
Let's first undo D matrix for 2x2 and the result is shown below. Just by looking at the overall constellation, you would not notice any difference from the previous step. But if you look into the matrix itself in more detail, you would notice there is no differences in terms of rx_p0 constellation but there is phase delay of multiples of pi radian (meaning the rotating the constellation by multiples of pi radian). In constellation, if you rotate the point by multiples of 90 degree (pi/2 radian) you would not notice any big difference NOTE : If you are interested in math practice for this operation, Check out this ,this and this note to get some intuitive understanding of this matrix. If you are seriously interested in this process, you need to have a good / concrete understandings on the math operation itself.
Now let's undo the last part of Large CDD which is to undo U matrix. The result is as below. Now you see the QAM constellation as you expected.

